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After HostA pings HostB, which entry will be in the ARP cache of HostA to support this transmission? 

A. Exhibit A 

B. Exhibit B 

C. Exhibit C 

D. Exhibit D 

E. Exhibit E 

F. Exhibit F 



When a host needs to reach a device on another subnet, the ARP cache entry will be that of the Ethernet address of the local router (default gateway) for the physical MAC address. The destination IP address will not change, and will be that of the remote host (HostB). 


8. A network interface port has collision detection and carrier sensing enabled on a shared twisted pair network. From this statement, what is known about the network interface port? 

A. This is a 10 Mb/s switch port. 

B. This is a 100 Mb/s switch port. 

C. This is an Ethernet port operating at half duplex. 

D. This is an Ethernet port operating at full duplex. 

E. This is a port on a network interface card in a PC. 



Modern Ethernet networks built with switches and full-duplex connections no longer utilize CSMA/CD. CSMA/CD is only used in obsolete shared media Ethernet (which uses repeater or hub). 


9. A receiving host computes the checksum on a frame and determines that the frame is damaged. The frame is then discarded. At which OSI layer did this happen? 

A. session 

B. transport 

C. network 

D. data link 

E. physical 



The Data Link layer provides the physical transmission of the data and handles error notification, network topology, and flow control. The Data Link layer formats the message into pieces, each called a data frame, and adds a customized header containing the hardware destination and source address. Protocols Data Unit (PDU) on Datalink layer is called frame. According to this question the frame is damaged and discarded which will happen at the Data Link layer. 


10. Which of the following correctly describe steps in the OSI data encapsulation process? (Choose two.) 

A. The transport layer divides a data stream into segments and may add reliability and flow control information. 

B. The data link layer adds physical source and destination addresses and an FCS to the segment. 

C. Packets are created when the network layer encapsulates a frame with source and destination host addresses and protocol-related control information. 

D. Packets are created when the network layer adds Layer 3 addresses and control information to a segment. 

E. The presentation layer translates bits into voltages for transmission across the physical link. 

Answer: AD 


11. Refer to the graphic. 


Host A is communicating with the server. What will be the source MAC address of the frames received by Host A from the server? 

A. the MAC address of router interface e0 

B. the MAC address of router interface e1 

C. the MAC address of the server network interface 

D. the MAC address of host A 


Whereas switches can only examine and forward packets based on the contents of the MAC header, routers can look further into the packet to discover the network for which a packet is destined. Routers make forwarding decisions based on the packet\'s network-layer header (such as an IPX header or IP header). These network-layer headers contain source and destination network addresses. Local devices address packets to the router\'s MAC address in the MAC header. After receiving the packets, the router must perform the following steps: 

1. Check the incoming packet for corruption, and remove the MAC header . The router checks the packet for MAC-layer errors. The router then strips off the MAC header and examines the network-layer header to determine what to do with the packet. 

2. Examine the age of the packet. The router must ensure that the packet has not come too far to be forwarded. For example, IPX headers contain a hop count. By default, 15 hops is the maximum number of hops (or routers) that a packet can cross. If a packet has a hop count of 15, the router discards the packet. IP headers contain a Time to Live (TTL) value. Unlike the IPX hop count, which increments as the packet is forwarded through each router, the IP TTL value decrements as the IP packet is forwarded through each router. If an IP packet has a TTL value of 1, the router discards the packet. A router cannot decrement the TTL value to 1 and then forward the packet. 

3. Determine the route to the destination. Routers maintain a routing table that lists available networks, the direction to the desired network (the outgoing interface number), and the distance to those networks. After determining which direction to forward the packet, the router must build a new header. (If you want to read the IP routing tables on a Windows 95/98 workstation, type ROUTE PRINT in the DOS box.) 

4. Build the new MAC header and forward the packet. Finally, the router builds a new MAC header for the packet. The MAC header includes the router\'s MAC address and the final destination\'s MAC address or the MAC address of the next router in the path. 


12. Refer to the exhibit. 


What two results would occur if the hub were to be replaced with a switch that is configured with one Ethernet VLAN? (Choose two.) 

A. The number of collision domains would remain the same. 

B. The number of collision domains would decrease. 

C. The number of collision domains would increase. 

D. The number of broadcast domains would remain the same. 

E. The number of broadcast domains would decrease. 

F. The number of broadcast domains would increase. 

Answer: CD 

Basically, a collision domain is a network segment that allows normal network traffic to flow back and forth. In the old days of hubs, this meant you had a lot of collisions, and the old CSMA/CD would be working overtime to try to get those packets re-sent every time there was a collision on the wire (since ethernet allows only one host to be transmitting at once without there being a traffic jam). With switches, you break up collision domains by switching packets bound for other collision domains. These days, since we mostly use switches to connect computers to the network, you generally have one collision domain to a PC. 

Broadcast domains are exactly what they imply: they are network segments that allow broadcasts to be sent across them. Since switches and bridges allow for broadcast traffic to go unswitched, broadcasts can traverse collision domains freely. Routers, however, don\'t allow broadcasts through by default, so when a broadcast hits a router (or the perimeter of a VLAN), it doesn\'t get forwarded. The simple way to look at it is this way: switches break up collision domains, while routers (and VLANs) break up collision domains and broadcast domains. Also, a broadcast domain can contain multiple collision domains, but a collision domain can never have more than one broadcast domain associated with it. 

Collision Domain: A group of Ethernet or Fast Ethernet devices in a CSMA/CD LAN that are connected by repeaters and compete for access on the network. Only one device in the collision domain may transmit at any one time, and the other devices in the domain listen to the network in order to avoid data collisions. A collision domain is sometimes referred to as an Ethernet segment. 

Broadcast Domain: Broadcasting sends a message to everyone on the local network (subnet). An example for Broadcasting would be DHCP Request from a Client PC. The Client is asking for a IP Address, but the client does not know how to reach the DHCP Server. So the client sends a DHCP Discover packet to EVERY PC in the local subnet (Broadcast). But only the DHCP Server will answer to the Request. 

How to count them? 

Broadcast Domain: 

No matter how many hosts or devices are connected together, if they are connected with a repeater, hub, switch or bridge, all these devices are in ONE Broadcast domain (assuming a single VLAN). A Router is used to separate Broadcast-Domains (we could also call them Subnets - or call them VLANs). 

So, if a router stands between all these devices, we have TWO broadcast domains. 

Collision Domain: 

Each connection from a single PC to a Layer 2 switch is ONE Collision domain. For example, if 5 

PCs are connected with separate cables to a switch, we have 5 Collision domains. If this switch is connected to another switch or a router, we have one collision domain more. 

If 5 Devices are connected to a Hub, this is ONE Collision Domain. Each device that is connected to a Layer 1 device (repeater, hub) will reside in ONE single collision domain. 


13. Which three statements accurately describe Layer 2 Ethernet switches? (Choose three.) 

A. Spanning Tree Protocol allows switches to automatically share VLAN information. 

B. Establishing VLANs increases the number of broadcast domains. 

C. Switches that are configured with VLANs make forwarding decisions based on both Layer 2 and Layer 3 address information. 

D. Microsegmentation decreases the number of collisions on the network. 

E. In a properly functioning network with redundant switched paths, each switched segment will contain one root bridge with all its ports in the forwarding state. All other switches in that broadcast domain will have only one root port. 

F. If a switch receives a frame for an unknown destination, it uses ARP to resolve the address. 

Answer: BDE 


Microsegmentation is a network design (functionality) where each workstation or device on a network gets its own dedicated segment (collision domain) to the switch. Each network device gets the full bandwidth of the segment and does not have to share the segment with other devices. Microsegmentation reduces and can even eliminate collisions because each segment is its own collision domain -> . Note: Microsegmentation decreases the number of collisions but it increases the number of collision domains. 

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